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中华人民共和国国家赔偿法(附英文)

作者 佚名 来源 不详 浏览量 时间 2008-03-24

中华人民共和国国家赔偿法(附英文)                              


1994年5月12日第八届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第七次会议通过
 
          目  录
    第一章  总  则
    第二章  行政赔偿
      第一节  赔偿范围
      第二节  赔偿请求人和赔偿义务机关
      第三节  赔偿程序
    第三章  刑事赔偿
      第一节  赔偿范围
      第二节  赔偿请求人和赔偿义务机关
      第三节  赔偿程序
    第四章  赔偿方式和计算标准
    第五章  其他规定
    第六章  附  则
 
          第一章  总  则
    第一条  为保障公民、法人和其他组织享有依法取得国家赔偿的权利,促进国家机关依法行使职权,根据宪法,制定本法。
    第二条  国家机关和国家机关工作人员违法行使职权侵犯公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益造成损害的,受害人有依照本法取得国家赔偿的权利。
    国家赔偿由本法规定的赔偿义务机关履行赔偿义务。
 
          第二章  行政赔偿
    
 
          第一节  赔偿范围
    第三条  行政机关及其工作人员在行使行政职权时有下列侵犯人身权情形之一的,受害人有取得赔偿的权利:
    (一)违法拘留或者违法采取限制公民人身自由的行政强制措施的;
    (二)非法拘禁或者以其他方法非法剥夺公民人身自由的;
    (三)以殴打等暴力行为或者唆使他人以殴打等暴力行为造成公民身体伤害或者死亡的;
    (四)违法使用武器、警械造成公民身体伤害或者死亡的;
    (五)造成公民身体伤害或者死亡的其他违法行为。
    第四条  行政机关及其工作人员在行使行政职权时有下列侵犯财产权情形之一的,受害人有取得赔偿的权利:
    (一)违法实施罚款、吊销许可证和执照、责令停产停业、没收财物等行政处罚的;
    (二)违法对财产采取查封、扣押、冻结等行政强制措施的;
    (三)违反国家规定征收财物、摊派费用的;
    (四)造成财产损害的其他违法行为。
    第五条  属于下列情形之一的,国家不承担赔偿责任:
    (一)行政机关工作人员与行使职权无关的个人行为;
    (二)因公民、法人和其他组织自己的行为致使损害发生的;
    (三)法律规定的其他情形。
 
          第二节  赔偿请求人和赔偿义务机关
    第六条  受害的公民、法人或者其他组织有权要求赔偿。
    受害的公民死亡,其继承人和其他有扶养关系的亲属有权要求赔偿。
    受害的法人或者其他组织终止,承受其权利的法人或者其他组织有权要求赔偿。
    第七条  行政机关及其工作人员行使行政职权侵犯公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益造成损害的,该行政机关为赔偿义务机关。
    两个以上行政机关共同行使行政职权时侵犯公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益造成损害的,共同行使行政职权的行政机关为共同赔偿义务机关。
    法律、法规授权的组织在行使授予的行政权力时侵犯公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益造成损害的,被授权的组织为赔偿义务机关。
    受行政机关委托的组织或者个人在行使受委托的行政权力时侵犯公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益造成损害的,委托的行政机关为赔偿义务机关。
    赔偿义务机关被撤销的,继续行使其职权的行政机关为赔偿义务机关;没有继续行使其职权的行政机关的,撤销该赔偿义务机关的行政机关为赔偿义务机关。
    第八条  经复议机关复议的,最初造成侵权行为的行政机关为赔偿义务机关,但复议机关的复议决定加重损害的,复议机关对加重的部分履行赔偿义务。
 
          第三节  赔偿程序
    第九条  赔偿义务机关对依法确认有本法第三条、第四条规定的情形之一的,应当给予赔偿。
    赔偿请求人要求赔偿应当先向赔偿义务机关提出,也可以在申请行政复议和提起行政诉讼时一并提出。
    第十条  赔偿请求人可以向共同赔偿义务机关中的任何一个赔偿义务机关要求赔偿,该赔偿义务机关应当先予赔偿。
    第十一条  赔偿请求人根据受到的不同损害,可以同时提出数项赔偿要求。
    第十二条  要求赔偿应当递交申请书,申请书应当载明下列事项:
    (一)受害人的姓名、性别、年龄、工作单位和住所,法人或者其他组织的名称、住所和法定代表人或者主要负责人的姓名、职务;
    (二)具体的要求、事实根据和理由;
    (三)申请的年、月、日。
    赔偿请求人书写申请书确有困难的,可以委托他人代书;也可以口头申请,由赔偿义务机关记入笔录。
    第十三条  赔偿义务机关应当自收到申请之日起两个月内依照本法第四章的规定给予赔偿;逾期不予赔偿或者赔偿请求人对赔偿数额有异议的,赔偿请求人可以自期间届满之日起三个月内向人民法院提起诉讼。
    第十四条  赔偿义务机关赔偿损失后,应当责令有故意或者重大过失的工作人员或者受委托的组织或者个人承担部分或者全部赔偿费用。
    对有故意或者重大过失的责任人员,有关机关应当依法给予行政处分;构成犯罪的,应当依法追究刑事责任。

          第三章  刑事赔偿
    
 
          第一节  赔偿范围
    第十五条  行使侦查、检察、审判、监狱管理职权的机关及其工作人员在行使职权时有下列侵犯人身权情形之一的,受害人有取得赔偿的权利:
    (一)对没有犯罪事实或者没有事实证明有犯罪重大嫌疑的人错误拘留的;
    (二)对没有犯罪事实的人错误逮捕的;
    (三)依照审判监督程序再审改判无罪,原判刑罚已经执行的;
    (四)刑讯逼供或者以殴打等暴力行为或者唆使他人以殴打等暴力行为造成公民身体伤害或者死亡的;
    (五)违法使用武器、警械造成公民身体伤害或者死亡的。
    第十六条  行使侦查、检察、审判、监狱管理职权的机关及其工作人员在行使职权时有下列侵犯财产权情形之一的,受害人有取得赔偿的权利:
    (一)违法对财产采取查封、扣押、冻结、追缴等措施的;
    (二)依照审判监督程序再审改判无罪,原判罚金、没收财产已经执行的。
    第十七条  属于下列情形之一的,国家不承担赔偿责任:
    (一)因公民自己故意作虚伪供述,或者伪造其他有罪证据被羁押或者被判处刑罚的;
    (二)依照刑法第十四条、第十五条规定不负刑事责任的人被羁押的;
    (三)依照刑事诉讼法第十一条规定不追究刑事责任的人被羁押的;
    (四)行使国家侦查、检察、审判、监狱管理职权的机关的工作人员与行使职权无关的个人行为;
    (五)因公民自伤、自残等故意行为致使损害发生的;
    (六)法律规定的其他情形。
 
          第二节  赔偿请求人和赔偿义务机关
    第十八条  赔偿请求人的确定依照本法第六条的规定。
    第十九条  行使国家侦查、检察、审判、监狱管理职权的机关及其工作人员在行使职权时侵犯公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益造成损害的,该机关为赔偿义务机关。
    对没有犯罪事实或者没有事实证明有犯罪重大嫌疑的人错误拘留的,作出拘留决定的机关为赔偿义务机关。
    对没有犯罪事实的人错误逮捕的,作出逮捕决定的机关为赔偿义务机关。
    再审改判无罪的,作出原生效判决的人民法院为赔偿义务机关。二审改判无罪的,作出一审判决的人民法院和作出逮捕决定的机关为共同赔偿义务机关。
 
          第三节  赔偿程序
    第二十条  赔偿义务机关对依法确认有本法第十五条、第十六条规定的情形之一的,应当给予赔偿。
    赔偿请求人要求确认有本法第十五条、第十六条规定情形之一的,被要求的机关不予确认的,赔偿请求人有权申诉。
    赔偿请求人要求赔偿,应当先向赔偿义务机关提出。
    赔偿程序适用本法第十条、第十一条、第十二条的规定。
    第二十一条  赔偿义务机关应当自收到申请之日起两个月内依照本法第四章的规定给予赔偿;逾期不予赔偿或者赔偿请求人对赔偿数额有异议的,赔偿请求人可以自期间届满之日起三十日内向其上一级机关申请复议。
    赔偿义务机关是人民法院的,赔偿请求人可以依照前款规定向其上一级人民法院赔偿委员会申请作出赔偿决定。
    第二十二条  复议机关应当自收到申请之日起两个月内作出决定。
    赔偿请求人不服复议决定的,可以在收到复议决定之日起三十日内向复议机关所在地的同级人民法院赔偿委员会申请作出赔偿决定;复议机关逾期不作决定的,赔偿请求人可以自期间届满之日起三十日内向复议机关所在地的同级人民法院赔偿委员会申请作出赔偿决定。
    第二十三条  中级以上的人民法院设立赔偿委员会,由人民法院三名至七名审判员组成。
    赔偿委员会作赔偿决定,实行少数服从多数的原则。
    赔偿委员会作出的赔偿决定,是发生法律效力的决定,必须执行。
    第二十四条  赔偿义务机关赔偿损失后,应当向有下列情形之一的工作人员追偿部分或者全部赔偿费用:
    (一)有本法第十五条第(四)、(五)项规定情形的;
    (二)在处理案件中有贪污受贿,徇私舞弊,枉法裁判行为的。
    对有前款(一)、(二)项规定情形的责任人员,有关机关应当依法给予行政处分;构成犯罪的,应当依法追究刑事责任。
 
          第四章  赔偿方式和计算标准
    第二十五条  国家赔偿以支付赔偿金为主要方式。
    能够返还财产或者恢复原状的,予以返还财产或者恢复原状。
    第二十六条  侵犯公民人身自由的,每日的赔偿金按照国家上年度职工日平均工资计算。
    第二十七条  侵犯公民生命健康权的,赔偿金按照下列规定计算:
    (一)造成身体伤害的,应当支付医疗费,以及赔偿因误工减少的收入。减少的收入每日的赔偿金按照国家上年度职工日平均工资计算,最高额为国家上年度职工年平均工资的五倍;
    (二)造成部分或者全部丧失劳动能力的,应当支付医疗费,以及残疾赔偿金,残疾赔偿金根据丧失劳动能力的程度确定,部分丧失劳动能力的最高额为国家上年度职工年平均工资的十倍,全部丧失劳动能力的为国家上年度职工年平均工资的二十倍。造成全部丧失劳动能力的,对其扶养的无劳动能力的人,还应当支付生活费;
    (三)造成死亡的,应当支付死亡赔偿金、丧葬费,总额为国家上年度职工年平均工资的二十倍。对死者生前扶养的无劳动能力的人,还应当支付生活费。
    前款第(二)、(三)项规定的生活费的发放标准参照当地民政部门有关生活救济的规定办理。被扶养的人是未成年人的,生活费给付至十八周岁止;其他无劳动能力的人,生活费给付至死亡时止。
    第二十八条  侵犯公民、法人和其他组织的财产权造成损害的,按照下列规定处理:
    (一)处罚款、罚金、追缴、没收财产或者违反国家规定征收财物、摊派费用的,返还财产;
    (二)查封、扣押、冻结财产的,解除对财产的查封、扣押、冻结,造成财产损坏或者灭失的,依照本条第(三)、(四)项的规定赔偿;
    (三)应当返还的财产损坏的,能够恢复原状的恢复原状,不能恢复原状的,按照损害程度给付相应的赔偿金;
    (四)应当返还的财产灭失的,给付相应的赔偿金;
    (五)财产已经拍卖的,给付拍卖所得的价款;
    (六)吊销许可证和执照、责令停产停业的,赔偿停产停业期间必要的经常性费用开支;
    (七)对财产权造成其他损害的,按照直接损失给予赔偿。
    第二十九条  赔偿费用,列入各级财政预算,具体办法由国务院规定。
 
          第五章  其他规定
    第三十条  赔偿义务机关对依法确认有本法第三条第(一)、(二)项、第十五条第(一)、(二)、(三)项情形之一,并造成受害人名誉权、荣誉权损害的,应当在侵权行为影响的范围内,为受害人消除影响,恢复名誉,赔礼道歉。
    第三十一条  人民法院在民事诉讼、行政诉讼过程中,违法采取对妨害诉讼的强制措施、保全措施或者对判决、裁定及其他生效法律文书执行错误,造成损害的,赔偿请求人要求赔偿的程序,适用本法刑事赔偿程序的规定。
    第三十二条  赔偿请求人请求国家赔偿的时效为两年,自国家机关及其工作人员行使职权时的行为被依法确认为违法之日起计算,但被羁押期间不计算在内。
    赔偿请求人在赔偿请求时效的最后六个月内,因不可抗力或者其他障碍不能行使请求权的,时效中止。从中止时效的原因消除之日起,赔偿请求时效期间继续计算。
    第三十三条  外国人、外国企业和组织在中华人民共和国领域内要求中华人民共和国国家赔偿的,适用本法。
    外国人、外国企业和组织的所属国对中华人民共和国公民、法人和其他组织要求该国国家赔偿的权利不予保护或者限制的,中华人民共和国与该外国人、外国企业和组织的所属国实行对等原则。
 
          第六章  附  则
    第三十四条  赔偿请求人要求国家赔偿的,赔偿义务机关、复议机关和人民法院不得向赔偿请求人收取任何费用。
    对赔偿请求人取得的赔偿金不予征税。
    第三十五条  本法自1995年1月1日起施行。
 
          附:法律有关条文
一、刑法
    第十四条  已满十六岁的人犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
    已满十四岁不满十六岁的人,犯杀人、重伤、抢劫、放火、惯窃罪或者其他严重破坏社会秩序罪,应当负刑事责任。
    已满十四岁不满十八岁的人犯罪,应当从轻或者减轻处罚。
    因不满十六岁不处罚的,责令他的家长或者监护人加以管教;在必要的时候,也可以由政府收容教养。
    第十五条  精神病人在不能辨认或者不能控制自己行为的时候造成危害结果的,不负刑事责任;但是应当责令他的家属或者监护人严加看管和医疗。
    间歇性的精神病人在精神正常的时候犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
    醉酒的人犯罪,应当负刑事责任。
二、刑事诉讼法
    第十一条  有下列情形之一的,不追究刑事责任,已经追究的,应当撤销案件,或者不起诉,或者宣告无罪:
    (一)情节显著轻微、危害不大,不认为是犯罪的;
    (二)犯罪已过追诉时效期限的;
    (三)经特赦令免除刑罚的;
    (四)依照刑法告诉才处理的犯罪,没有告诉或者撤回告诉的;
    (五)被告人死亡的;
    (六)其他法律、法令规定免予追究刑事责任的。
 
        Law of the People's Republic of China on State Compensation
 
  (Adopted on May 12, 1994 at the Seventh Session  of  the  StandingCommittee of the Eighth National People's Congress and promulgated on thesame day)
 
          Whole document
Law of the People's Republic of China on State Compensation
(Adopted on May 12, 1994 at the Seventh Session  of  the  Standing
Committee of the Eighth National People's Congress and promulgated on the
same day)
 
          Chapter 1 General Principles
Article 1
    In conformity with the Constitution, this Law is  enacted  to  protect
citizens, legal persons and other organizations  to  enjoy  the  right  to
compensation by the state and to promote  the  state  organs  to  exercise
their functions and powers in accordance with law.
Article 2
    If a state organ or  a  member  of  its  personnel,   when  exercising
functions and powers in violation of the law, infringes  upon  the  lawful
rights and interests of a citizen, legal person or other organization  and
causes damages the aggrieved  person  shall  have  the  right  to  recover
damages from the state in accordance with this Law.
    The obligations of state compensation shall be performed by the organs
under compensatory obligations stipulated by this Law.
 
          Chapter 2 Administrative Compensation
    
 
          Section 1: Scope of Compensation
Article 3
    The aggrieved person shall have the right to recover damages in one of
the following circumstances where an administrative organ or its personnel
infringes upon his personal rights when exercising functions and powers:
    (1) where there  is  unlawful  detention  or  an  unlawful  compulsory
administrative measure to restrict the personal freedom of a citizen;
    (2) where there is unlawful custody or otherwise unlawful  deprivation
of the personal freedom of a citizen;
    (3) where such violent act as battery or abetting  others  in  battery
causes bodily injury to or decease of a citizen;
    (4) where the use of weapon or police apparatus in violation  of  laws
causes bodily injury to or decease of a citizen;  or
    (5) other unlawful acts which cause bodily injury to or decease  of  a
citizen.
Article 4
    The aggrieved person shall have the right to recover damages in one of
the following circumstances where an administrative organ or its personnel
infringes upon his  property  right  when  exercising  its  functions  and
powers:
    (1) imposing an administrative punishment in  violation  of  the  law,
such as fining, revocation of  a  permit  or  license,  order  to  suspend
production or business operation or confiscation of property and article;
    (2) taking a compulsory administrative measure in violation of the law
such as sealing up, distraining or freezing of property;
    (3) expropriating property and article  or  apportioning  expenses  in
violation of rules and regulations of the state; or
    (4) other unlawful acts which cause damage to property.
Article 5
    The state shall not be liable for compensation in one of the following
circumstances:
    (1) where the personal act by personnel of the state organ, which does
not relate to his exercise of functions and powers;
    (2) where the act by a citizen, legal  person  or  other  organization
itself causes damage; or
    (3) other situations as provided for by law.
 
          Section 2: Claimant for Compensation and Organs  for  compensatory Obligations
Article 6
    The aggrieved citizen, legal person or other organization  shall  have
the right to claim compensation.
    Where the aggrieved  citizen  is  deceased,  his  successor  or  other
relatives  with  maintenance  relation  shall  have  the  right  to  claim
compensation.
    Where the aggrieved legal person or other organization has terminated,
the legal person or other organization which  succeeds  its  rights  shall
have the right to claim compensation.
Article 7
    Where an administrative organ and  its  personnel  infringe  upon  the
lawful rights and  interests  of  a  citizen,  a  legal  person  or  other
organization and cause damage when exercising its administrative functions
and powers, the organ shall be  responsible  for  fulfilling  compensatory
obligations.
    Two administrative organs or  more  which  infringe  upon  the  lawful
rights and interests of a citizen, legal person or other organization  and
cause damage when exercising  their  joint  administrative  functions  and
powers, shall be the organs under joint compensatory obligations.
    An organization authorized by law  which  infringes  upon  the  lawful
rights and interests of a citizen, legal person or other organization  and
causes damage when exercising its authorized administrative powers,  shall
be the organ under compensatory obligations.
    An organization or individual entrusted  by  an  administrative  organ
infringes upon the lawful rights and interests of a citizen, legal  person
or other organization and causes  damage  when  exercising  the  entrusted
administrative powers, shall be the organ under compensatory obligations.
    Where the organ for compensatory obligation has  been  abolished,  the
administrative organ that continues  to  exercise  the  abolished  organ's
functions and powers shall be the  organ  under  compensatory  obligation;
where  there  is  no  such   a   continued   administrative   organ,   the
administrative organ that did the abolishment shall  be  the  organ  under
compensatory obligations.
Article 8
     Where  the  case  has  been   reconsidered   by   the   organ   under
reconsideration, the administrative organ which caused the initial  damage
shall  be  the   organ   under   compensatory   obligations;   where   the
reconsideration decision by the organ for reconsideration  aggravates  the
damage,  the organ for reconsideration shall  be  liable  for  the  damage
resulting from the aggravation part.
 
          Section 3: Procedure of Compensation
Article 9
    The organ for compensatory obligations shall pay compensation  in  one
of the circumstances as provided for in Article 3 and Article  4  of  this
Law once confirmed in accordance with law.
    A claimant shall, first, file a claim for compensation with  an  organ
under compensatory obligations and may,  in the  meantime,  file  a  claim
when applying for an administrative  reconsideration  and  instituting  an
administrative procedure.
Article 10
    A claimant may claim compensation from any one  of  the  organs  under
joint compensatory obligations  and  the  said  organ  under  compensatory
obligations shall pay compensation first.
Article 11
    The claimant may,  depending  on  different  injuries  suffered,  file
several claims for compensation.
Article 12
     The  claim  for  compensation  shall  be  filed  by   presenting   an
application, which shall contain the following contents:
    (1) name, sex, age, employer and address of  the  claimant,  name  and
address of the legal person or other organization and name and post of its
legal representative or main person in charge;
    (2) the specific claim, factual basis and reasons; and
    (3) the date of application.
    Where the claimant has difficulty in  writing  the  application,   the
claimant may entrust it with other persons or file a  verbal  application,
which shall be  recorded  in  writing  by  the  organ  under  compensatory
obligations.
Article 13
    The organ under compensatory obligations shall, within 2  months  from
the date of receipt of the application,  pay  compensation  in  accordance
with the provisions of Chapter 4 of this Law; in case of failure by it  to
pay compensation within the specific period, or where the claimant is  not
satisfied with the amount of compensation,  the  claimant  may,  within  3
months from the date of expiration of the period, bring  an  action  in  a
people's court.
Article 14
    After paying compensation, the organ  under  compensatory  obligations
shall instruct its personnel or the entrusted organization or  person  who
has committed intentional or grave mistake in the case to bear part or all
of the expenses for damage.
    The competent  authorities  shall,  in  accordance  with  law,  impose
administrative sanctions on those responsible persons who  have  committed
intentional or grave mistakes in the  case;  If  the  case  constitutes  a
crime, the criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law.
 
          Chapter 3 Criminal Compensation
    
 
          Section 1: Scope of Compensation
Article 15
    Where organs and their personnel  which  exercise  the  functions  and
powers of detection,  prosecution,   adjudication  and  administration  of
prison cause any of the following infringements upon personal rights  when
exercising their functions and powers, the aggrieved person shall have the
right to recover damages:
    (1) a wrong detention of a person without criminal  facts  or  without
facts evidencing the person with gross criminal suspicion;
    (2) a wrong arrest of a person without criminal facts;
    (3) an adjudication of  innocence  is  given  to  change  an  original
sentence in the retrial according to the procedure for trial  supervision,
and the original sentence of penalty has been executed;
    (4) bodily  injury  to  or  death  of  a  citizen  caused  by  torture
arrangement or such violent acts as battery or abetting others in battery;
    (5) the bodily injury to or decease of a citizen  caused  by  unlawful
use of weapon or police apparatus.
Article 16
    Organs and their personnel which exercise the functions and powers  of
detection, prosecution,  adjudication and administration of  prison  cause
one of the following infringements upon property  rights  when  exercising
their functions and powers, the aggrieved person shall have the  right  to
recover damages:
    (1) where there is a measure, such as sealing up,  distraint, freezing
or recovery of property in violation of law; or
    (2) where an adjudication of innocence is given to change an  original
sentence in the retrial in  accordance  with  the  procedure  for  retrial
supervision, and the original court supervision of fine or confiscation of
property has been executed.
Article 17
    The state shall not be responsible for  compensation  in  any  of  the
following circumstances:
    (1) where a citizen was put into custody  or  was  sentenced  criminal
penalty because of his intentionally false confession or falsification  of
other evidence of guilt;
    (2) where a person, who shall  not  bear  criminal  responsibility  in
accordance with Article 14 and Article 15 of the  Criminal  Law,  was  put
into custody;
    (3)  where  a  person,  who  shall  not  be  prosecuted  for  criminal
responsibility in accordance with Article 11  of  the  Criminal  procedure
Law, was put into custody;
    (4) personal act by the personnel of  the  organs  that  exercise  the
functions  and  powers  of  detection,  prosecution,    adjudication   and
administration of prison, which does not relate to  his  exercise  of  the
said functions and powers;
     (5)  where  the  damage  was  caused  by  such  intentional  acts  as
self-injuring or self-disabling; or
    (6) other situations as provided for by law.
 
          Section 2: Claimant for Compensation  and  Organ  for Compensatory Obligations
Article 18
    The claimant for compensation shall be determined in  accordance  with
Article 6 of this Law.
Article 19
    Where organs and their personnel  which  exercise  the  functions  and
powers of detection,  prosecution,   adjudication  and  administration  of
prison infringe upon the lawful rights and interests of a  citizen,  legal
person or other organization when exercising their functions  and  powers,
the organs shall be responsible for fulfilling compensatory obligations.
    The organ which makes a wrong decision  to  detain  a  person  without
criminal facts  or  a  person  without  facts  evidencing  gross  criminal
suspicion shall be the organ for compensatory obligations.
    The organ which makes a wrong decision  to  arrest  a  person  without
criminal facts shall be the organ for compensatory obligations.
    Where a sentence is given  to  change  an  original  judgment  in  the
retrial, the people's court which made  the  original  effective  judgment
shall be the organ for compensatory obligations. Where an adjudication  of
innocence is given to change an original judgment in the second  instance,
the people's court which made the judgment of first instance and the organ
which made the decision of arrest shall  be  the  organ  for  compensatory
obligations.
 
          Section 3: Procedures of Compensation
Article 20
    The organ for compensatory obligations shall pay compensation  in  any
of the circumstances as provided for in Article 15 and Article 16 of  this
Law when confirmed in accordance with law.
    Where the claimant for compensation demands the confirmation of one of
the circumstances as provided for in Article 15 and Article 16 of this Law
and the demanded organ refuses to  make  the  confirmation,  the  claimant
shall have the right to lodge a complaint.
    Where the claimant claims compensation, the  claim  shall,  first,  be
lodged to the organ for compensatory obligations.
    The procedures of  compensation  shall  apply  to  the  provisions  of
Article 10, Article 11 and Article 12 of this Law.
Article 21
    The organ for compensatory obligations shall, within 2 months from the
date of receipt of the application,  pay compensation in  accordance  with
the provisions of Chapter 4 of this Law; in case of failure by it  to  pay
compensation within the period specified or  where  the  claimant  is  not
satisfied with the amount of compensation,  the claimant  may,  within  30
days  from  the  date  of  expiration  of  the  time  limit,   apply   for
reconsideration by an organ at the next higher level.
    Where the organ under compensatory obligations is  a  people's  court,
the claimant for compensation may, pursuant to the provisions of preceding
paragraph, apply to the compensation commission of the people's  court  at
the next higher level for a decision of compensation.
Article 22
    The organ for reconsideration shall,  within 2 months from the date of
receipt of the application,  make a decision.
    Where  the  claimant  for  compensation  is  not  satisfied  with  the
reconsideration decision, he or she may, within 30 days from the  date  of
receipt of reconsideration decision,  apply for a decision of compensation
to the compensation commission of the people's court at the same level  at
the place where the organ for reconsideration is located;  Failure by  the
organ for reconsideration to make a decision within the period  specified,
the claimant for compensation  may,  within  30  days  from  the  date  of
expiration of the time period, apply for a decision of compensation to the
compensation commission of the people's court at the  same  level  at  the
place where the organ for reconsideration is located.
Article 23
    An intermediate  people's  court  or  the  people's  court  above  the
intermediate level shall set up a  compensation  commission,  which  shall
consist of 3 to 7 judges.
    The compensation commission shall make a decision of  compensation  on
the principle of the minority subordinate to the majority.
    Where the decision of compensation by the compensation  commission  is
of validity of law, it must be executed.
Article 24
    Having paid compensation, the  organ  under  compensatory  obligations
shall recover part or all of the damages from its personnel in any of  the
following circumstances:
    (1) the circumstances as provided for in Article 15 (4), (5)  of  this
Law; or
    (2) where its personnel embezzle or take bribery and  embezzlement  or
act wrongly out of personal considerations or  commit  fraudulent  act  or
bring in judgment by perverting the law.
    The competent  authorities  shall,  in  accordance  with  law,  impose
administrative sanctions on those responsible persons who fall in  one  of
the circumstances as provided  for  in  (1)  and  (2)  of  the  proceeding
paragraph; If the case constitute a  crime,  the  criminal  responsibility
shall be investigated in accordance with law.
 
          Chapter 4 Methods of Compensation and Calculation Standards
Article 25
    The main method of state compensation shall be the payment of damages.
    Where the property can be returned or can be restored to the  original
state, it shall be returned or made restoration  to  the  original  state.
Article 26
    Where the personal rights of a citizen are infringed upon, the  amount
of money for compensation per day shall be  calculated  according  to  the
average salary per day of the staff of the state in  the  preceding  year.
Article 27
    Where the rights of life and health of a citizen are  infringed  upon,
the amount of money for compensation per day shall be calculated according
to the following provisions:
    (1) Where bodily injury is caused, medical expenses  and  compensation
for losses of income for absence from work shall be paid.  The  amount  of
money for compensation per day for losses of income  shall  be  calculated
according to the average salary per day of the staff of the state  in  the
preceding year. The maximum amount shall be five  times  as  much  as  the
annual average salary of the staff of the state in the preceding year.
    (2) Where partial or total loss of the  ability  to  work  is  caused,
medical expenses and compensation money for disablement shall be paid. The
amount of money for  compensation  for  disablement  shall  be  calculated
according to the seriousness of loss of the ability to work.  The  maximum
amount of compensation money for partial loss of ability to work shall  be
ten times as much as the annual average salary of the staff of  the  state
in the preceding year. The maximum amount of compensation money for  total
loss of ability to work shall be  twenty  times  as  much  as  the  annual
average salary of the staff of the state in the preceding year. In case of
total loss of ability to work, living expenses shall be paid to the person
who is maintained by the aggrieved and without ability to work. and
    (3) Where decease is caused, compensation money and  funeral  expenses
shall be paid, the total amount of which shall be twenty times as much  as
the annual average salary of the staff of the state in the preceding year.
Living expenses shall be paid to the  person  who  is  maintained  by  the
aggrieved before his or her decease and without ability to work.
    The granting of living expenses  mentioned  in  (2)  and  (3)  of  the
preceding paragraph shall be made in  light  of  the  relevant  provisions
concerning   subsistence   relief   promulgated   by   the   local   civil
administration department. Should the person maintained be a juvenile, the
living expenses shall be paid until the juvenile reaches the  age  of  18;
Should the person be of no ability to work, the living expenses  shall  be
paid until his decease.
Article 28
    Where the property  rights  of  a  citizen,   legal  person  or  other
organization are infringed upon and damage is caused, it  shall  be  dealt
with according to the following provisions:
    (1)  in  case  of  imposition  of  a  fine  or  penalty,  recovery  or
confiscation of property, or expropriation of  property  and  article,  or
appointment of expenses in violation of the provisions of the  state,  the
property shall be returned;
    (2) in case of sealing up, distraint  and  freezing  of  property  and
causing damage or destruction to the property,  compensation shall be paid
according to the provisions of (3) and (4) of this Article;
    (3) in case of damage to the property which should  be  returned,  the
original state shall be restored if it can be done. If the original  state
can not be  restored,  corresponding  compensation  money  shall  be  paid
according to the seriousness of the damage;
    (4) in case of destruction of the property which should  be  returned,
corresponding compensation money shall be paid;
    (5) in case the property has been auctioned, proceeds from the auction
shall be paid;
    (6) in case of rescission of a permit or  license,  order  to  suspend
production or business operation, compensation shall be paid to cover  the
necessary current expenses incurred during the suspension period; or
    (7) in case of other damages caused  to  the  property,   compensation
shall be made in light of direct loss of the property.
Article 29
    The expenses for compensation shall be listed in the fiscal budget  of
governments at all levels, the detailed rules of which shall be formulated
by the State Council.
 
          Chapter 5 Other Provisions
Article 30
    Where any of the circumstances as provided for in Article 3 (1) and
(2) and Article 15 (1),  (2) and (3) of this Law, is  confirmed  according
to law and causes infringement upon the rights of reputation and honor  of
the aggrieved person, the organ compensatory obligations  shall  eliminate
the bad effect, rehabilitate the reputation of and make an apology to  the
aggrieved person to the extent of the infringing acts affected.
Article 31
    Where a people's court, in the course of  a  civil  or  administrative
procedure, illegally undertakes compulsory measures against impairment  of
action,  preservative measures or  wrongfully  executes  the  judgment  or
award or other legal effective documents and  which  causes  damages,  the
procedure for the claim of compensation by the claimant shall apply to the
provisions of this Law concerning the procedures of criminal compensation.
Article 32
    The prescription of claim for state compensation by the claimant shall
be 2 years, which shall be calculated from the day on  which  the  act  of
exercising the functions and powers by the State organ and  its  personnel
was confirmed unlawful according to law, but the period of  custody  shall
be excluded from the limitation of time.
    Where the claimant for compensation can not exercise his or her  right
of claim due to force majeure or other obstacles during the last 6  months
of the prescription of claim for  compensation,  the  limitation  of  time
shall be suspended. The time of prescription  of  claim  for  compensation
shall resume from  the  day  when  the  grounds  for  the  suspension  are
eliminated.
Article 33
    This Law shall be applicable to such cases as claiming by a foreigner,
foreign enterprise or  organization  in  the  territory  of  the  People's
Republic  of  China  upon  the  People's  Republic  of  China  for   state
compensation.
    If the mother state of a foreigner, foreign enterprise or organization
does not protect or imposes restrictions upon the right  of  claiming  for
state compensation from that state by a Chinese citizen, legal  entity  or
other organization,  the People's  Republic  of  China  shall  follow  the
principle of reciprocity with regard to such  mother  state  of  the  said
foreigner, foreign enterprise or organization.
 
          Chapter 6 Supplementary Provisions
Article 34
    Where the claimant claims for state  compensation,   the  organ  under
compensatory obligations, the organ for reconsideration and  the  people's
court shall not charge anything to the claimant.
    Taxes shall not be levied upon  the  compensation  money  obtained  by
claimant for compensation.
Article 35
     This  Law  shall  enter  into  force   as   of   January   1,   1995.
Appendix:Related Articles of Laws
1. Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China
Article 14
    Any person who has reached the age of 16 and who commits a crime shall
bear criminal responsibility.
    Any person who has reached the age of 14 but not the age of 16 and who
commits a homicide, inflicting  serious  bodily  injury,  robbery,  arson,
habitual theft or any other crime seriously undermining social order shall
bear criminal responsibility.
    Any person who has reached the age of 14 but not the age of 18 and who
commits a crime shall be given a lighter or mitigated punishment.
    If a person is not punished because he has not reached the age of  16,
the head of his or her family or his or her guardian shall be  ordered  to
discipline and educate him or her. When necessary, he or she may  also  be
taken in by the government for reeducation.
Article 15
    If a mental patient causes dangerous consequences at a time when he or
she is unable to recognize or control his or her own conduct,  he  or  she
shall not bear criminal responsibility, however,  his  or  her  family  or
guardian shall be ordered to make him or her under strict custody and give
medical treatment.
    Any person whose mental illness is of  an  intermittent  nature  shall
bear criminal responsibility if he or she commits a crime when he  or  she
is in a normal mental state.
    Any intoxicated  person  who  commits  a  crime  shall  bear  criminal
responsibility.
2. Criminal Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China
Article 11
    In any of the following  circumstances,   no  criminal  responsibility
shall be investigated; if investigation has already been  undertaken,  the
case shall be dismissed,   or  prosecution  shall  not  be  initiated,  or
innocence shall be declared:
    (1) if an act is obviously of minor  importance,  causing  no  serious
harm, and is therefore not deemed as a crime;
    (2) if the limitation period for criminal prosecution has expired;
    (3) if an exemption of criminal  punishment  has  been  granted  in  a
special amnesty decree;
    (4) if the crime is to be handled only upon complaint according to the
Criminal Law, but there has been no complaint or the  complaint  has  been
withdrawn;
    (5) if the defendant is deceased; or
    (6) if other laws or decrees provide an exemption  from  investigation
of criminal responsibility.

   
   
   

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